domingo, 20 de diciembre de 2009

Savitrí (reina)

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Este artículo trata sobre la reina del Majábharata. Para otros usos de este término, véase Savitri.

Savitrí es una reina que aparece como personaje del antiguo relato épico hindú Majábharata (siglo VI a. C.),

El rey Ashwa Pati de Madra (uno de los reinos de la India antigua) no puede tener hijos y decide emprender una vía de sacrificio y rogativas a los dioses para que le concedan su deseo. La diosa Savitrí —hija de Suria (el dios del Sol) y esposa de Brahmá (el dios de cuatro cabezas)— accediendo a sus ruegos le concede la gracia de un hijo. A los nueve meses nace una niña que será llamada Savitrí en honor de la diosa.

La niña tiene una infancia feliz, mas son tales las virtudes y gracias que le adornan que, llegada a la pubertad, ninguno de los súbditos del reino se atreve a pedir su mano. Por esta razón Ashwapati le ordena que emprenda un viaje para encontrar a quien deba de ser su marido. Así lo hace Savitrí y tras un largo periodo de búsqueda, la casualidad la lleva, apartada ya de las rutas de las grandes ciudades, a un lugar en plena naturaleza en el que por vez primera ve a Satyaván, que vive en el bosque en donde su padre el rey Diumatsena, ciego, ha sido desterrado tras perder el reino de Shalwa.

Tras permanecer juntos un tiempo y comprometerse, Savitrí debe volver para comunicar a sus padres que ya ha encontrado a quien va a ser su esposo. En el momento en que Savitrí regresa a la corte de su padre está presente el sabio volador Nárada Muni, quien al escuchar el nombre de Satyaván predice que el marido elegido va a morir al cabo de doce meses. Pero Savitrí se mantiene en su elección y parte de nuevo para celebrar los esponsales. Comienza así una nueva vida en el bosque, en compañía de Satyaván, de su familia y de los cortesanos que acompañan al rey en el exilio.

Pasados los doce meses, el momento fatal ha llegado y Savitrí acompaña a su esposo al bosque donde acostumbra a cortar leña para el hogar. Encontrándose en esa tarea aparece Iama, el dios de la muerte, que comienza a llevarse a Satyaván. Pero Savitrí no se conforma con la muerte de su marido. Contrariando a Iama, primero sigue a ambos al mundo de la tiniebla y de la muerte, y más tarde, imponiendo su voluntad a la del dios, conseguirá ciertos dones relacionados con la felicidad y la descendencia del desterrado rey Diumatsena y por último devolver a la vida a Satyaván.

Ya de regreso encuentran en el bosque al rey Diumatsena que, durante su ausencia, ha recobrado la vista, así como también el reino que había perdido. Satyaván y Savitrí vivirán felices el resto de sus días acompañados de la bendición de numerosos hijos y descendientes.

Bibliografía [editar]

Categorías: Personajes mitológicos | Reyes mitológicos | Mitología hindú | Leyendas de la India


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Contents


[edit] Presentation

The oldest known version of the story of Savitri and Satyavan is found in "The Book of the Forest" of the Mahabharata.

The story occurs as a multiple embedded narrative in the Mahabharata told by Markandeya. When Yudhisthira asks Markandeya whether there has ever been a woman whose devotion matched Draupadi’s, Markandeya replies by relating this story:

[edit] Story

The childless king of Madra, Ashwapati, lives ascetically for many years and offers oblations to Sun God Savitr. He wishes to have a son for his lineage. Finally, pleased by the prayers, God Savitr appears to him and grants him a boon: he will soon have a daughter. The king is joyful at the prospect of a child. She is born and named Savitri in honor of the god. Savitri is born out of devotion and asceticism, traits she will herself practice.

Savitri is so beautiful and pure, she shies away all men in the vicinity. When Savitri reaches the age of marriage, no man asks for her hand, so her father tells her to find a husband on her own. She sets out on a pilgrimage for this purpose and finds Satyavan, the son of a blind king named Dyumatsena, who after he had lost everything including his sight, lives in exile as a forest-dweller.

Savitri returns to find her father speaking with Sage Narada who announces that Savitri has made a bad choice: although perfect in every way, Satyavan is destined to die one year from that day. In response to her father’s pleas to choose a more suitable husband, Savitri insists that she will choose her husband but once. After Narada announces his agreement with Savitri, Ashwapati acquiesces.

Savitri and Satyavan are married, and she goes to live in the forest. Immediately after the marriage, Savitri wears the clothing of a hermit and lives in perfect obedience and respect to her new parents-in-law and husband.

Three days before the foreseen death of Satyavan, Savitri takes a vow of fasting and vigil. Her father-in-law tells her she has taken on too harsh of a regimen, but Savitri replies that she has taken an oath to perform these austerities, at which Dyumatsena offers his support.

The morning of Satyavan’s predicted death, Savitri asks for her father-in-law’s permission to accompany her husband into the forest. Since she has never asked for anything during the entire year she has spent at the hermitage, Dyumatsena grants her wish.

They go and while Satyavan is splitting wood, he suddenly becomes weak and lays his head in Savitri’s lap. Yama himself, the Death, comes to claim the soul of Satyavan. Savitri follows Yama as he carries the soul away. When he tries to convince her to turn back, she offers successive formulas of wisdom. First she praises obedience to Dharma, then friendship with the strict, then Yama himself for his just rule, then Yama as King of Dharma, and finally noble conduct with no expectation of return. Impressed at each speech, Yama praises both the content and style of her words and offers any boon, except the life of Satyavan. She first asks for eyesight and restoration of the kingdom for her father-in-law, then a hundred sons for her father, and then a hundred sons for herself and Satyavan. The last wish creates a dilemma for Yama, as it would indirectly grant the life of Satyavan. However, impressed by Savitri's dedication and purity, he offers one more time for her to choose any boon, but this time omitting "except for the life of Satyavan". Savitri instantly asks for Satyavan to return to life. Yama grants life to Satyavan and blesses Savitri's life with eternal happiness.

Satyavan awakens as though he has been in a deep sleep and returns to his parents along with his wife. Meanwhile at their home, Dyumatsena regains his eyesight before Savitri and Satyavan return. Since Satyavan still does not know what happened, Savitri relays the story to her parents-in-law, husband, and the gathered ascetics. As they praise her, Dyumatsena’s ministers arrive with news of the death of his usurper. Joyfully, the king and his entourage return to his kingdom.[1]

[edit] Popular culture

In India many woman are named Savithri. There are many films made in South India with the story. In Telugu language films are made from the beginning of Talkies in 1933, 1957, 1977 and 1981.



[edit] References

  1. ^ http://www.ack-media.com/india/products/Savitri-826-0.html

2. ^ The Mahabharata vol. 2, tr. J.A.B. van Buitenen (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975)

Categories: Mahābhārata

En otros idiomas












Svarga

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En el marco del hinduismo, Swarga (o Suarga) es un grupo de mundos celestiales ubicados en el Monte Meru, y por encima de él. Es el Cielo adonde los justos viven en un paraíso antes de su siguiente reencarnación.

Suarga se ve como un lugar temporal donde las almas buenas que han realizado buenas acciones (pero no están listas para alcanzar moksha [liberación espiritual, o unión con el Brahman), la cual requiere el disfrute de la reacción de todos los sacrificios y la abstinencia de todo pecado (pāpa en sánscrito). La capital de Suarga es Amaravati y su entrada es cuidada por Airavata (el elefante del dios Indra, el principal de los devas, quien preside sobre Suarga).

Los hinduistas creen que la estadía en el cielo no puede ser eterna, ya que allí también existe la muerte. Es un cielo temporal donde las almas disfrutan de punia karmam (acciones piadosas) antes de tener que volver a nacer en nuestro planeta, de acuerdo con las reacciones de su karma.

Escritura [editar]

En letra devánagari se escribe स्वर्ग. En el sistema internacional de transliteración IAST se escribe Svarga.

En otras mitologías [editar]

En la religión eslava Svarga es el Cielo, la residencia del dios Svarog.

Véase también [editar]

  • Jumala: la morada del trueno, de la deidad regente del panteón finlandés.
  • Naraka: el infierno hinduista.
Categorías: Mitología hindú | Mitología eslava | Paraíso


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In Hinduism, (Sanskrit: स्वर्ग) Svarga (or Swarga) is set of heavenly worlds located on and above Mt. Meru. It is a Heaven where the righteous live in a paradise before their next reincarnation. Svarga is seen as a transitory place for righteous souls who have performed good deeds in their lives but are not yet ready to attain moksha, or union with Brahman, which requires enjoyment of all the soul's punyam (virtuous deeds) as well as abstinence from pāpa (sin). The capital of Svarga is Amaravati and its entrance is guarded by Airavata. Svarga is presided over by Indra, the chief deva.

This is a "Good and nice" kind of temporary heaven where the soul enjoys all its Punya karmam before attaining either moksha, or rebirth according to its Karma.

[edit] In other mythologies

In Slavic religion Svarga is Heaven, the residence of god Svarog.

[edit] See also


Categories: Locations in Hindu mythology | Slavic mythology | Concepts of Heaven | Sanskrit words and phrases | Hinduism stubs
En otros idiomas